Allopregnanolone (5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one, Allo)
- Allopregnanolone is released by the adrenal gland in response to stress providing delayed negative feedback inhibition of the HPA axis and promoting anxiolytic and anesthetic effects.
- Allopregnanolone activates GABA receptors with effects similar to those of other positive allosteric modulators of the GABA action such as benzodiazepines, including anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant activity.
- Reduced levels of allopregnanolone are found to be associated with major depression, anxiety disorders, and Alzheimer’s disease. Exogenous administration of allopregnanolone can reverse both neurogenic and cognitive deficits in mouse models of neurodegeneration.
Arbor Assays Allopregnanolone ELISA Kit, K061-H1/H5 has been cited for use with brain tissue and blood samples.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (androst-5-en-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate, DHEA-S)
- DHEA-S, produced by the adrenal cortex, is the most abundant steroid found in the bloodstream with circulating levels 10,000 times higher than most other steroids.
- Though hormonally inert, DHEA-S acts as a neurosteroid by activating GABA and NMDA receptors and can stimulate dopamine release by upregulating tyrosine hydroxylase levels.
- DHEA-S plays a critical role in the development, maintenance and survival of the central nervous system by modulating neurotransmitter synthesis and release and regulating inflammation, cognitive function, neurogenesis and neuronal survival.
Arbor Assays DHEA-S ELISA Kit, K054-H1/H5 measures DHEA-S in as little as 1 µl of serum or plasma.
Progesterone (pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, P4)
- In addition to its role in the production of endogenous steroids, such as sex hormones and corticosteroids, progesterone plays a critically important role as a neurosteroid.
- Progesterone inhibits neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling and activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, PKA, and PI3-kinase/Akt among others.
- Progesterone supports normal development of neurons in the brain and has a protective effect on damaged brain tissue, promoting and enhancing repair after traumatic brain injury and stroke.
- Progesterone inhibits neurodegenerative disease progression by increasing the number of oligodendrocytes expressing the myelin basic protein among other effects. Blocking the local synthesis or action of progesterone impairs remyelination of regenerating axons.
Arbor Assays Progesterone ELISA Kit, K025-H1/H5 has been used in studies of neuroinflammation in brain tissue.