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- Sample Types Serum, Plasma, Buffers, Tissue Culture Media
- Sensitivity 0.493 mg/dL
- Time to Answer 30 Minutes
- Samples/Kit 88 in Duplicate
- Stability Liquid 4°C Stable Reagents
- Standard Curve
Galactose is a hexose sugar that differs from glucose by the configuration of the hydroxyl group at the carbon-4 position. Present as an anomeric mixture of α-D-galactose and β-D-galactose, this monosaccharide exists abundantly in milk, dairy products and many other food types such as fruits and vegetables.
Absorption of galactose in humans is mediated by the Na+/glucose co-transporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 from food across the brush border membrane of the proximal jejunum and renal epithelium. Additionally, adults can produce up to 2 grams of galactose per day. Inside cells, β-D-galactose is epimerized to α-D-galactose and is subsequently converted to galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1-P). In the presence of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, Gal-1-P reacts with UDP-glucose to form UDP-galactose and glucose-1-phosphate. The glucose-1-phosphate produced can enter the glycolytic pathway or react with UTP in the presence of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase to form a new molecule of UDP-glucose. This enzyme pathway comprises the evolutionarily conserved Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. If the flow of galactose through the Leloir pathway is perturbed either due to congenital deficiency of any of the above-mentioned enzymes or an overwhelming presence of this hexose, toxicity syndromes (galactosemia) will be observed.