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- Sample Types Serum, Plasma, Cells, Tissue Culture Media, Erythrocytes
- Time to Answer 20 Minutes
- Samples/Kit 88 in Duplicate
- Stability Liquid 4ºC stable reagents
- Readout Colorimetric, 450 nm
- Standard Curve
Short-lived and highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O2-· (superoxide), ·OH (hydroxyl radical), and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) are continuously generated in vivo. The cellular levels of ROS are controlled by antioxidant enzymes and small molecule antioxidants. The major antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutases (SODs), including copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD). All play a critical roles in scavenging O2-·. Decreased SOD activity results in elevated level of superoxide which in turn leads to decreased NO and increased peroxynitrite concentrations. The major intracellular SOD is a 32-kDa copper and zinc containing homodimer (Cu/Zn SOD). The mitochondrial SOD (MnSOD) is a manganese-containing 93-kDa homotetramer that is synthesized in the cytoplasm and translocated to the inner matrix of mitochondria. EC-SOD is the primary extracellular SOD enzyme and is highly expressed in many organs. Increased SOD activity levels are seen in Downs Syndrome, while decreased activity is seen in diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, uremic anemia, atherosclerosis, some cancers, and thyroid dysfunction.