While oxidative damage to DNA is an inevitable byproduct of cellular metabolism, excess DNA oxidation is frequently associated with carcinogenesis, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease.
Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during normal cellular metabolism and also by ultraviolet or ionizing radiation. Reactive species are continually generated in vivo and often cause oxidative damage to biomolecules like proteins and DNA. Oxidative damage is normally held in check by multiple antioxidant and repair systems, but excessive oxidative stress damages tissues, potentially leading to a number of diseases. It is widely thought that continuous oxidative damage to DNA is a significant contributor to the age-related development of major cancers such as colon, breast, rectum, and prostate.
Oxidative DNA damage is ordinarily repaired by cellular base excision repair mechanisms producing the 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine product (8-OHdG). The formation 8-OHdG is commonly observed in systems under oxidative pressure. Quantitation of 8-OHdG is an accurate measurement of DNA damage. Therefore, the resulting 8-OHdG excreted without further metabolism into urine can be used as an oxidative marker marker.
The DetectX® DNA Damage EIA Kit (K059-H1/H5) is designed to quantitatively measure oxidized guanosine species produced from the repair of DNA and RNA oxidation. The assay detects all three oxidized guanine species; 8-OHdG from DNA, 8-hydroxyguanosine from RNA, and 8-hydroxyguanine from DNA or RNA. These molecules are produced from nucleic acids by ionizing radiation, such as radioactive decay or UV light, or ROS interactions with biological systems. These species may be present in serum, plasma, saliva, urine, dried fecal, cells, tissues, and tissue culture samples. Arbor Assays has developed a unique new assay method that delivers exceptionally reproducible results for quantitation of important markers of DNA damage.