Natural products have long been used in traditional medicine for their unique anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and many complex natural products have become successful pharmaceutical agents. However, the potential of many natural products has not been fully realized because they tend to exhibit physiochemical properties that result in low membrane permeability. Methods that enable natural products to permeate the cell membrane and bind to intracellular targets despite size and polarity are required.

recent study by Antonio Vassallo, et al. investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Hydroxycitrate (HCA), the primary active anti-inflammatory compound from Garcinia cambogia, (Malabar tamarind). HCA is a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, and it has been shown to significantly reduce levels of inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in experimental models of inflammation. In the study, cells treated with liposome-encapsulated HCA, when compared to HCA in solution, had 4 times more intracellular HCA and required 10-fold less HCA to significantly reduce LPS-induced NO, ROS, and PGE2 increase as measured with an ELISA kit from Arbor Assays. This suggests liposomal HCA can target the citrate pathway and prepared liposomes can be remarkably effective in delivering natural molecules to cellular targets.


  • Highly cited – 50+ publications
  • Multi-Format Kit – Flexible measurement between 1,000 and 2 pg/mL
  • Validated – Multiple sample types and species, and works directly with mouse and rat serum
  • Sensitive – Measure < 0.2 pg/sample
  • Versatile – Choice of incubation time, sensitivity, and sample volume

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