We know the cGAS–STING pathway is a key activator of the innate immune response to cellular damage or microbial infection. Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS) catalyzes the formation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) in response to the presence of foreign DNA in the cytoplasm. Cyclic GAMP is a potent activator of the immune response in eukaryotes, where infected cells can induce an antiviral response in effector cells through direct transfer of cGAMP by inclusion in enveloped virions1,2.
Recently, studies have shown that activation of the immune response by cGAMP is an effective strategy for boosting the response to vaccination. This makes cGAMP a potential new vaccine adjuvant for viral diseases like influenza and COVID-19. A recent study by Wang et al. reports cGAMP adjuvants can stimulate a potent immune response3. Additionally, cGAMP induces significantly higher CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in immunized mice, and up-regulates IFN-γ expression in lung tissue of mice in the early stages of a virus challenge. As such, viral vectors loaded with cGAMP is a promising potential vaccine strategy for the novel coronavirus and other emerging pandemics.
Arbor Assays developed the first immunoassay for measuring 2’,3’-Cyclic GAMP ELISA (K067-H1/H5, H1D) in 2019, and our newest assay, 3′,3′-Cyclic GAMP ELISA (K073-H1/H5), accurately measures 3’,3’-cGAMP in bacterial or eukaryotic cell lysates using a simple and convenient ELISA format. These innovative and valuable tools will facilitate further understanding of the role cyclic dinucleotides play in health and disease.