SENSITIVE ASSAYS FOR CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE SIGNALING
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP or cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP or cGMP) are prolific intracellular signaling molecules. The critical role of cyclic dinucleotides continues to emerge. In mammalian cells, cGAMP is implicated in innate immune response to foreign or harmful DNA. In bacterial cells, it is a key mediator of signal transduction and regulation. The Arbor Assays DetectX® cell signaling assay kits allow for simple, rapid determination of cGAMP, cAMP, or cGMP in tissues, cells, saliva, urine, plasma, or culture media.
OUR DetectX® KITS
- 2′,3′-CYCLIC GAMP ELISA KITS (K067-H1/H5/H1D): 2’,3’-cGAMP is produced by cGAS when eukaryotic cells detect the presence of foreign DNA in the cytoplasm. Rising cGAMP levels activate the STING immune response pathway and production of potent inflammatory mediators. The cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway plays a critical role in antiviral and antitumor immunity as well as mediating autoimmune responses. Dysregulation or aberrant activation of the pathway by self-DNA has emerged as an underlying cause of tumorigenesis and autoimmune disorders. Arbor Assays was the first to develop an ELISA kit to measure 2’,3’-cGAMP, and is the only to offer a 384-well kit format for high-throughput applications.
- 3′,3′-CYCLIC GAMP ELISA KITS (K073-H1/H5): 3’,3’-cyclic GAMP is a key mediator of bacterial signal transduction and regulation, controlling a range of diverse targets including transcription, enzyme activity and cell cycle progression. 3’,3’-cyclic GAMP signaling is critical for prokaryotic biofilm formation and motility and is a convenient target for the study and modulation of pathogen metabolism. Arbor Assay is proud to offer the World’s first and only ELISA Kit to measure 3′,3′-Cyclic GAMP in cell lysates, culture medium, and microbiome model systems.
- CYCLIC AMP DIRECT CHEMILUMINESCENT ELISA KITS (K019-C1/C5) and DIRECT ELISA KITS (K019-H1/H5): Cyclic AMP is one of the most important second messengers and a key intracellular regulator. Cyclic AMP plays a primary role in the regulation of many critical metabolic pathways, and tight control of cAMP levels is of paramount importance to the well-being of an organism. Arbor Assays Direct cAMP ELISA kits allow ultra-sensitive measurement of cAMP in any sample from any species, including cell and tissue lysates. The assay kits feature an acidic sample diluent to inactivate enzymes that potentially break down cAMP in biological samples, allowing direct measurement of cAMP and considerably simplifying previously complicated detection protocols. cAMP kits from Arbor Assays are available in standard colorimetric or chemiluminescent format for added sensitivity.
- CYCLIC GMP DIRECT CHEMILUMINESCENT ELISA KITS (K020-C1/C5), DIRECT ELISA KITS (K020-H1/H5),and DIRECT ELISA KITS – IMPROVED SENSITIVITY (K065-H1/H5): Cyclic GMP is a critical and multifunctional second messenger regulating activation of intracellular protein kinases in response to the binding of membrane-impermeable peptide hormones to the external cell surface. Cyclic GMP is a common regulator of ion channel conductance, glycogenolysis, vasodilation and apoptosis. Levels of cGMP are tightly controlled through cGMP-dependent kinase activity, cGMP-dependent ion channels, and through degradation by phosphodiesterases. Measurement of cGMP levels is valuable method in cell signaling studies, and Arbor Assays ELISA kits are particularly well-suited for cGMP detection. The cGMP assay kits feature an acidic sample diluent to inactivate enzymes that potentially break down cGMP in biological samples, allowing direct measurement of cGMP and considerably simplifying previously complicated detection protocols. cGMP kits from Arbor Assays are available in standard colorimetric or chemiluminescent format for added sensitivity.
ACTIVATORS & INHIBITORS
- IBMX (P019-100MG/1GM): IBMX is a widely-used non-specific inhibitor of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs). By inhibiting PDEs, IBMX increases cellular cAMP and cGMP levels, activating cyclic-nucleotide-regulated protein kinases.
- DMXAA (P024-5MG/25MG): DMXAA is a STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) agonist selective for mouse STING. Intratumoral administration of DMXAA resulted in tumor regression and complete rejection in mouse xenografts.
- H-151 (P023-10MG/50MG): H-151 is a potent, irreversible inhibitor of Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) in mouse and human cells. H-151 covalently binds to Cys91 of STING preventing activation via blockade of palmitoylation and clustering STING. H-151 blocks STING induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduces inflammation in models of auto-inflammatory disease