A History of Saliva Testing
Saliva has been used in diagnostics for more than 2,000 years1. Analyses of the properties of saliva using biochemical and physiological methodologies can be traced back to over a century ago, at least2. The use of saliva for health and diagnosis has recently received renewed interest because of the advantages saliva offers over other sample types3,4. Saliva testing is particularly well-suited for determination of stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function5.
Advantages of Using Saliva for Biomarker Analysis
- Easy Collection: While blood sampling requires highly-trained personnel, saliva procurement can be done by anyone, including self-collection.
- Simple Processing: Saliva does not clot and requires less manipulation than blood to prepare, ship and store.
- Broad Applicability: Saliva contains a wide array of key, active, pathophysiologic biomarkers.
Utility of Saliva as a Sample Type for Biomarker Analysis
Saliva testing is currently used to screen for numerous conditions including cardiovascular, endocrine, cancer, parasitic, allergic and infectious diseases, as well as stress and reproductive conditions. Saliva is also rapidly replacing serum as the gold standard for hormonal and adrenal evaluation, because saliva contains active, bioavailable hormones rather than those bound to protein. Clinically, it is far more relevant to test bioavailable hormones, especially when evaluating markers of stress and metabolism.
Examples of Salivary Biomarkers
- Monitoring the role of androgens, corticosteroids and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in humans and animals
- Measuring markers of stress and oxidative stress
Nucleic Acids: DNA/RNA
- Standard genotyping
- Immunoglobulins for diagnosing viruses
- Metabolites for diagnosing periodontitis, stress, oxidative stress
Specific Diagnostic Applications of Saliva
- Bacterial Infection: By monitoring the presence of antibodies to microorganisms found in saliva and oral cavity
- Cardiovascular Disease: Determination of acute inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein as a marker of cardiovascular disease risk status
- Cystic Fibrosis: Saliva of CF patients contain increased calcium and phosphate levels, urea and uric acid and abnormally elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).
- Diabetes Mellitus: Altered levels of IgA, salivary peroxidase, glucose content, K, salivary total protein and amylase
- Oral Mucosal Disease: Altered levels of oxidative stress markers like hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide
- Viral Diseases: Detection of virus RNA or diagnosis based on the presence of IgM/IgA antibodies in saliva
- Autoimmune Disorders: Altered concentrations of NaCl, IgA, IgG, lactoferrin, inflammatory mediators such as PGE2, TXB2, Interleukin-6, etc.
Handling Saliva Samples for Biomarker Analysis
- Processing and storage: Samples can be easily collected in sterile tubes by passive drool or by using absorbent pads to minimize stress-related to sample collection. Saliva can be stored at 4°C for steroid hormone analysis or frozen for less stable molecules like peptides.
- Saliva sample handling protocol
- Sample processing protocol videos
We Can Measure Your Saliva Samples!
Send your samples to us and take advantage of our Sample Testing Services.
Our Saliva-Validated Assays
Arbor Assays ELISA kits have been validated for use with saliva for a variety of relevant biomarkers. Our assays are a cost-effective, high-quality alternative to other assay platforms and are available immediately.
|Androstenedione ELISA Kit
||K070-H1 Androstenedione ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K070-H5 Androstenedione ELISA Kit, 5 Plates|
|Corticosterone ELISA Kit
||K014-H1 Corticosterone ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K014-H5 Corticosterone ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Cortisol ELISA Kit
||K003-H1 Cortisol ELISA Kit, 1 Strip-Well Plate|
|K003-H5 Cortisol ELISA Kit, 5 Strip-Well Plate|
|K003-H1W Cortisol ELISA Kit, 1 Solid Plate|
|K003-H5W Cortisol ELISA Kit, 5 Solid Plate|
|Cortisone Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit
||K017-C1 Cortisone Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K017-C5 Cortisone Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Cortisone ELISA Kit
||K017-H1 Cortisone ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K017-H5 Cortisone ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Cyclic AMP Direct Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit
||K019-C1 Cyclic AMP Direct Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K019-C5 Cyclic AMP Direct Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Cyclic AMP Direct ELISA Kit
||K019-H1 Cyclic AMP Direct ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K019-H5 Cyclic AMP Direct ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Cyclic GMP Direct Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit
||K020-C1 Cyclic GMP Direct Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K020-C5 Cyclic GMP Direct Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
Cyclic GMP Direct ELISA Kit
|K020-H1 Cyclic GMP Direct ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K020-H5 Cyclic GMP Direct ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Cyclic GMP Direct ELISA Kit – Improved Sensitivity
||K065-H1 Cyclic GMP Direct ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K065-H5 Cyclic GMP Direct ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|DHEA-S ELISA Kit
||K054-H1 DHEA-S ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K054-H5 DHEA-S ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|DNA Damage ELISA Kit
||K059-H1 DNA Damage ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K059-H5 DNA Damage ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Epiandrosterone ELISA Kit
||K063-H1 Epiandrosterone ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K063-H5 Epiandrosterone ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Estrone ELISA Kit
||K031-H1 Estrone ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K031-H5 Estrone ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|FRAP™ (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) Detection Kit
||K043-H1 FRAP™ (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) Detection Kit, 2-plate|
|Levonorgestrel (LNG) ELISA Kit
||K058-H1 Levonorgestrel (LNG) ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K058-H5 Levonorgestrel (LNG) ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Human ELISA Kit
||K060-H1 Myeloperoxidase (MPO) ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|Nitric Oxide (NO) Colorimetric Detection Kit
||K023-H1 Nitric Oxide Colorimetric Detection Kit, 2 Plate|
|Oxytocin Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit
||K048-C1 Oxytocin Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K048-C5 Oxytocin Chemiluminescent ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Oxytocin ELISA Kit
||K048-H1 Oxytocin ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K048-H5 Oxytocin ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|PGE2 Multi-Format ELISA Kit
||K051-H1 PGE2 Multi-Format ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K051-H5 PGE2 Multi-Format ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Pregnanediol-3-Glucuronide (PDG) ELISA Kit
||K037-H1 Pregnanediol-3-Glucuronide (PDG) ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K037-H5 Pregnanediol-3-Glucuronide (PDG) ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Testosterone ELISA Kit
||K032-H1 Testosterone ELISA Kit, 1 Plate|
|K032-H5 Testosterone ELISA Kit, 5 Plate|
|Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Colorimetric Detection Kit
||K024-H1 Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Colorimetric Detection Kit, 2 Plate|
|K024-H5 Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Colorimetric Detection Kit, 10 Plate|
- Greabu, M., et al. (2009). Saliva–a diagnostic window to the body, both in health and in disease. Journal of Medicine and Life, 2(2), 124-132.
- Farnaud, S.J., et al. (2010). Saliva: Physiology and diagnostic potential in health and disease. Scientific World Journal, 10, 434–56.
- Streckfus C.F., & Bigler, L.R. (2002). Saliva as a diagnostic ﬂuid. Oral Diseases, 8(2), 69–76.
- Rathnayake, N., et al. (2013). Salivary biomarkers for detection of systemic diseases. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e61356.
- Raff, H. (2009). Utility of salivary cortisol measurements in Cushing’s syndrome and adrenal insufficiency. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 94(10), 3647-3655.